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官方22天5次提房地产税 专家称立法时间表年底前明确
2018-08-22 06:08 证券日报
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  官方22天五次提房地产税

  专家预计立法时间表年底前明确

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潘石屹谈房地产税:二套以内不应该征收 房价将下降

  ■本报记者 包兴安 

  3月25日,财政部部长刘昆表示,按照“立法先行、充分授权、分步推进”的原则,推进房地产税立法和实施。这是自3月4日以来22天内官方关于房地产税的第五次表态。

  吉林省财政科学研究所所长张依群对《证券日报》记者表示,今年以来,政府关于房地产税立法的表态频次是有史以来最高的,一方面说明政府对房地产健康发展、老百姓住有所居的高度关注,另一方面说明房地产税立法已经箭在弦上,正在紧锣密鼓地积极筹划。

  中国财政科学研究院副研究员施文泼对《证券日报》记者表示,房地产税涉及面广、利益调整复杂,制度设计难度大,立法需要进行充分讨论、凝聚共识。从法案起草到审议通过再到正式实施需要一个较长的过程。

  “房地产税征收的难点在于要有法律支持,由于房地产税理论层面、法律层面还有诸多问题需要解决,相关税费和房地产税需要理顺,所以要实行房地产税立法;要有数据支撑,即住房数据、家庭人口数据要匹配和实时更新;要有技术支撑,保证节约成本、征管到位、不留死角。从这个角度看,房地产税最快今年年底前会明确立法时间表。”张依群说。

  施文泼表示,开征房地产税的主要目的是为地方政府公共服务筹资,促进地方政府职能转变,更加注重为本地居民提供公共服务,实现良好的地方治理。房地产税又是一种重要的直接税,具有调节财富分配差距的功能,有助于增进社会公平。

  张依群表示,当前,“房子是用来住的”的理念代表政府引导房地产市场发展的方向。开征房地产税是推动房地产市场理性发展、健康发展、持续发展的必然选项。房地产税不仅具有地方主体税收的属性,还有调节市场住房供给、稳定市场房价的重要作用。

  施文泼认为,开征房地产税,不可避免会对房地产市场产生影响。通过增加持有成本,能在一定程度上抑制住房投资投机需求,促进房地产市场平稳运行。但房地产税的主要目的并非是调节房价,在调节房价上它也不是一个很好的政策工具。意图依靠房地产税来调节房价,并不现实。

  张依群建议,下一步,征收房地产税应更多从我国国情出发,保证住房基本居住的功能,实行家庭人员面积扣除,按照“低税率、广覆盖、轻税负”的原则征收,具体面积扣除标准和税基税率由地方政府根据当地经济发展水平、人均住房状况自定。

  施文泼指出,开征房地产税在法理上并无障碍。房地产税主要是为地方政府公共服务筹资,土地所有制并不能成为反对开征房地产税的理由。土地出让金与房地产税的性质、用途并不相同,二者也不存在重复征收的问题。但是,在实际操作中,房地产税的制度设计和有效征管面临着诸多难题,需要妥善应对。比如,在征税对象上,现有住房的类型复杂,有商品房、经济适用房、共有产权房等各种类型的住房,各类住房的产权属性、土地使用权期限、取得成本各不相同,对不同类型的房产是一视同仁地征税还是区别对待,这是房地产税制度设计面临的最大难点。

责任编辑:陈永乐

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